PPD is a revolutionary new physical vapour deposition (PVD) technique proved to deposit thin ﬁlms of numerous materials such as oxides, complex oxides, nitrides, carbides, carbon based ﬁlms, semiconductors, etc.
The deposition of thin films using PPD is done by ablation of a target material using a fast pulse of electrons (100ns) and the material is deposited on the substrate. Ablation by the fast electron beam causes the formation of a hot, dense, and high-velocity plasma. The benefit of the PPD system is its wide dynamic range of deposition rates (0.01 nm/s to 5 nm/s) and wide range of operation vacuum conditions (10-2 mbar to 10-5 mbar) making it possible to achieve a diverse range of suitable conditions for growth.
The chemical composition of the target is transferred to the substrate by a supersonic highly energetic plasma giving rise to thin ﬁlms of materials otherwise impossible to grow with conventional PVD and CVD techniques. The PPD process is a low temperature process with unparalleled possibilities for the growth of hetero-multilayer structures and deposition on delicate surfaces.
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Up to 4 PPD guns (in operation)
|Suitable for transparent materials||
The PPD Advantage
- Capability of reproducing complex chemical compositions.
- Deposition rate is considerably larger than traditional techniques like sputtering.
- Low temperature of deposition; e.g. room temperature deposition of TCO on plastic substrate.
- Suitable for hetero-multilayer growth. Low temperature operation avoids adverse effects on buried layers.
- Excellent film quality measured in terms of crystallinity, roughness, interface properties, adhesion etc.
- Sustainable use of materials to be deposited (target and film) – work with small quantities of solid material.
- Reduced usage of target material – directionality of plasma plume keeps material usage to a minimum.
- Confined deposition area delivers full control of the process, minimising exposure and aiding environmental safety.
- Eliminates requirement for chemical precursors and gas handling.
- Reduced set-up time for new deposition process.